Today let us learn about program counter what is it? We will discuss the definition, meaning, work of it in this article. Before beginning it let us know that there are important points in this topic. You would like to know them all which will be helpful for your understanding. This is the information that you should not miss at all as it will guide you to everything. I will describe the related concepts in detail. So let us start with what is meaning of the program counter.
What Is Program Counter?
The program counter is a register used by the computer CPU to store the address of the instruction that is going to be executed next. During the decode loop, the programmable logic array updates the PC to point to the next instruction. A program counter is also called a sequence control register, the instruction pointer, an instruction address register, or an instruction counter. It is a digital counter that is required for quicker task execution as well as monitoring the current execution stage. This adds one to the stored value after a machine is reset or restarted, the application counter normally resets to 0.
What Does A Program Counter Do?
The program counter register does the work of representing both instructions and data in memory that have a unique address. After each instruction is processed, the software application in control updates the counter program with the address of the next instruction to be processed. As a part of the execution standard processing, this program transfers this information to the memory address register. The address can also be placed into it using data processing instructions.
Program Counter Design
The design of the program counter diagram is the structure that contains the pointer value of the address of the instruction. The counter program is changed to point to the next instruction after the value at the pointer is read into the instruction decoder. Updating the PC register on a RISC device is as easy as applying the system word length in bytes to the PC.
Size Of Program Counter
The counter program register size is 16 bits. It includes a memory address. It includes the memory address from which the next instruction will be fetched and executed. For the program, a counterexample is a signal that enters the decimal number F000 into the CPU processor.
MIPS Program Counter
The market-leading processors using the instruction program register. The MIPS instruction is stored in a storage space located memory at 0x00400060. The MIPS computer system is capable of addressing 4 Gbytes of memory, ranging from 0x0000 0000 to 0xffff ffff. The data and commands reach the CPU via various channels. Data must be entered via the register counter block. These instructions are routed directly to the CPU’s instruction decoder.
Program Counter In 8085 Microprocessor
The 8085 microprocessor counter register includes the memory address from which the next instruction will be fetched and executed. If the program instruction counter contents are 8000H. This means 8085 wants to retrieve the instruction byte at 8000H. This is immediately increased by one after extracting the Byte at 8000H. It is an increase in the value that is called the instruction pointer increase. This setup HL pair as an address pointer value for source memory.
Program Counter Increment
After fetching an instruction program counter value is normally incremented and retains the memory address that leads to the next instruction that will be executed. Control shift instructions, which alter the sequence by inserting a new value into the PC, cause processors to retrieve instructions from memory in a different order. Each instruction is retrieved after the instruction register adds one to its stored value. The program clock advances to the next instruction in the chain after each instruction is fetched.
Difference Between Program Counter And Instruction Register
Below is the difference between the program counter and the instruction register.
- The counter program holds the address of the next instruction that is going to be executed. Whereas the instruction register has the encoded instruction in it.
- In the program instruction counter that is increased address value pointer by one. While in the instruction register it is decoded and executed properly.
How Do You Calculate Program Counters?
You can calculate them by understanding them. As it is a register that is used in computer systems and operating systems. It contains the address of the next instruction that will be executed. When an instruction is executed, it is incremented by one (PC = PC +1), and this is moved to the next instruction.
What Are The Program Counter And Instruction Register?
The counter program holds the address of the next instruction that is going to be executed. In the program instruction counter that is increased address value pointer by one.
Whereas the instruction register has the encoded instruction in it. The instruction register decodes and executes the instruction properly.
What It Is That Controls The Program Counter?
Instruction pointer and instruction address registers control the counter program. They are found in the microprocessors and the processor register in the computer. The special-purpose register is used by the processor to record the address of the next instruction to be executed. The programmable logic array automatically updates the counter to point to the next instruction during the decode cycle.
What Is The Program Counter Size?
The counter program register size is 16 bits. It includes a memory address. It includes the memory address from which the next instruction will be fetched and executed. In the microprocessor, the instruction pointer register of 16, 32, 64, etc bits is there that holds the memory address.
In this article, we read what is a program counter and how it works. For a deep understanding of it the structure of it that I explained it to you in an easy way. You are now knowing the concepts that are related to the computer instruction register very well. Some of the important terms that you must not have missed about the size and increment of this register may have helped you more. After reading this complete information you are now having a basic detailed idea about the program counter.